Not long ago, when I was updating my Windows 10 to recent Insider Preview build version 14291, I received Windows Update Error 0x80240017, to get rid of this I restarted my computer and tried again to install the update, but failed. If you too getting the same error, maybe what I did to fix this issue may help you too. You just need to follow the steps in following lines:
Steps to fix Windows Update Error 0x80240017
1. Simply launch Winx Menu by making right click on Start Button and launch the Command Prompt (Admin) from the list.
When UAC screen comes up, click Yes.
2. After that in Command terminal, you need to execute the following command back to back and hit Enter:
net stop wuauserv
net stop bits
Note: Do not close the Command Prompt because we still need it upcoming steps.
The above commands will stop the Windows Update Service and the Background Intelligent Transfer Service.
3. After that navigate to C:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution folder and delete all the content in it. To make the process easy, you can press (CTRL + A) keys to Select all content and then press the Delete button.
You will not be able to delete files in the folder if the files are in use. In this situation, you need to reboot your computer and need to again execute the command in step 2.
Now you will definitely able to delete the files in Software Distribution folder in Windows 10.
4. After deleting all the content in the folder, you need to reboot your computer and execute following commands back to back in Command Prompt terminal to restart the two services.
net start wuauserv
net start bits
Now again run the Windows Update and check if this helped.
After following the above steps I successfully downloaded and installed updates. I hope this will work for you also. If above steps don’t work for you, run the Windows Update Troubleshooter and see it it works or not.